Science and Technology (hereafter referred to as “S&T”) indicators represent quantitativemeans through which people can observe or measure S&T activities. S&T indicators canaccurately reflect the status of S&T development and its roles and impacts on social andeconomic development. S&T indicators act as the basic evidences in decision-makingprocess and the important instruments in evaluating the effects of S&T policies. Almostall nations and international organizations have been paying more and more attention toS&T indicators and using them as the basic tools of scientific decision making and policyanalysis. Since the 1990s, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China has, together with othergovernmental departments under the State Councils and relevant institutions, compiled andpublished series of reports as a government publication on China’s S&T indicators in theform of S&T Yellow Book. China Science and Technology Indicators 2014, or No.12 YellowBook on Science and Technology, is the 12th volume in the series. This issue has made full use of the scientific statistics data and relevant economic andsocial statistics data until the end of 2013, mainly reflecting the basic S&T developmentstatus since the release of the National Plan for Long and Medium-Term Scientific andTechnological Development (2006—2020) and the National Scientific and TechnologicalDevelopment Plan (2011—2015). It unveils major characteristics of China’s S&T activitiesin the course of supporting the economic and social transformation and reflects historicalprocess of strengthening China’s capacity of indigenous innovation and developing aninnovative country. As one of the serial reports, this volume is consistent with the structures and indicatorssystem applied in the previous volumes. The report has presented a systematic analysisand evaluation on China’s S&T human resources, R&D expenditures, S&T activity output,S&T activities carried out by major entities (enterprises, higher education institutions andgovernment research institutes), high-technology industries, overall scale and structuraldistribution of regional S&T development in the recent decade, especially during the 12thFive-Year Plan period. At the same time, this volume has made some updates. First, itunderscored the analysis of the trend of S&T indicators and the comparison with historicdata. Through the analysis and comparison, it reviewed China’s S&T development historyand the process of developing an innovative country in recent years, and tried to analyzethe trend and rule of S&T development from a longer-term perspective. Second, this reportcontinued to emphasize on international comparison. Some representative and comparativeS&T indicators have been used in the report to compare China with some importantdeveloped countries, emerging industrialized countries and developing countries so as toreflect the national characteristics of China’s S&T and China’s position in the world. Third,this report has made some necessary adjustments of the structure. Due to the lack of data onChinese citizens’ scientific awareness, the report does not include the chapter of “Citizen’sUnderstanding and Attitude to S&T”. To facilitate readers’ understanding of the report,some columns of background information and relevant knowledge were inserted whennecessary. Because of the limitation in statistic data collection and application, the report,unless otherwise noted, does not contain the data on Hong Kong Special AdministrativeRegion (SAR), Macao SAR and Taiwan regions. The Editorial Board of China Scienceand Technology Indicators 2014 acknowledges its gratitude to the guidance and assistanceprovided by authorities, experts and scholars of many government agencies and institutionsincluding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Association for Science andTechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation, StateAdministration of Foreign Exchange, Ministry of Education, National Bureau of Statistics,State Intellectual Property Office, the National Development and Reform Commission,Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Commerce, Commission of Science Technology andIndustry for National Defense. The Board also appreciates comments or suggestions, if any,from readers.
Executive Summary Chapter 1 Human Resources in Science and Technology Section 1 Overview of Human Resources in Science and Technology Section 2 Research and Development Personnel Section 3 Cultivation of Human Resources in Science and Technology Chapter 2 Research and Development Expenditure Section 1 Research and Development Expenditure Section 2 Structure of Research and Development Expenditure Section 3 Origin and Destination of R&D Expenditure Section 4 Government Spending on Science and Technology Chapter 3 Output of Science and Technology Activities Section 1 Science and Technology Papers Section 2 Invention Patents Chapter 4 Research and Development Activities and Innovations of Enterprises Section 1 Research and Development Activities of Enterprises Section 2 Research and Development Activities in Industrial Enterprises Section 3 Patents and Development of New Product in Industrial Enterprises Section 4 Cooperation among Industrial Enterprises, Universities, and Research Institutes and Technology Acquisition Chapter 5 Science and Technology Activities in Higher Education Institutions Section 1 Overview of Higher Education Institutions Section 2 R&D Institutions and Personnel in Higher Education Institutions Section 3 R&D Expenditure of Higher Education Institutions Section 4 Output and Achievement of Commercialization of S&T Activities at Higher Education Institutions Chapter 6 Science and Technology Activities in Government Research Institutes Section 1 Overview of Research Institutes Section 2 Research and Development Personnel at Research Institutes Section 3 Research and Development Expenditure at Research Institutes Section 4 Output and Achievement Transfer of Science and Technology Activities Chapter 7 Development of High-Technology Industry Section 1 High-Technology Industry Section 2 High-Technology Products Section 3 National High-Technology Industrial Development Zones Section 4 Venture Capital Investment Chapter 8 Regional Science and Technology Indicators Section 1 Regional Distribution of Major S&T Indicators Section 2 Distribution Features of Regional S&T Tables Table 1-1 Overview of human resources in S&T (2004—2013) Table 1-2 Technical personnel in S&T in state-owned enterprises and institutions (2000—2013) Table 1-3 R&D personnel in selected countries/regions Table 1-4 R&D personnel in selected countries/regions, by performance sectors Table 1-5 Undergraduates and postgraduates in regular higher education institutions (2001—2013) Table 1-6 Overseas Chinese students and returnes (1990—2013) Table 2-1 Input of R&D expenditure (2000—2013) Table 2-2 R&D expenditure, by activities and performence sectors (2000—2013) Table 2-3 Structure of R&D expenditure within performance sectors (2013) Table 2-4 Fiscal expenditure on science and technology of central and local total governments and their shares in central and local fiscal expenditure (2000—2013) Table 2-5 R&D expenditure in certain countries/regions (2004—2013) Table 2-6 GDP of certain countries (2004—2013) Table 2-7 Ratio of R&D expenditure (regional) to GDP (regional) in certain countries/regions (2004—2013) Table 2-8 R&D funds of certain countries, by sources and performence sectors (2013) Table 2-9 Distribution of R&D expenditure, by types of activities in certain countries Table 2-10 Distribution of R&D expenditure, by purposes of spending in certain countries Table 3-1 China’s S&T papers included in SCI (2002—2013) Table 3-2 Distribution of China’s S&T papers included in SCI, by discipline and type of organizations (2004—2013) Table 3-3 Efficiency of SCI papers to R&D funds in China (2000—2011) Table 3-4 Three kinds of patent applications and grants (2004—2013) Table 3-5 Applications of foreign invention patents by country (2004—2013) Table 3-6 Grants of foreign invention patents by country (2004—2013) Table 3-7 Domestic grants for inventions patents by service and non-service (2004—2013) Table 3-8 PCT applications in major countries (2004—2013) Table 3-9 Triadic patent families in major countries (2003—2012) Table 4-1 Personnel engaged in R&D activities in above-scale industrial enterprises (2013) Table 4-2 R&D expenditure, input intensity of R&D expenditure, and labor productivity of industrial enterprises among industries (2013) Table 4-3 Structure of source of funds of industrial enterprises among industries (2013) Table 4-4 Basic information on S&T activities in above-scale industrial enterprises (2000, 2004, 2009, and 2011—2013) Table 4-5 Basic information on S&T activities in medium and large-sized industrial enterprises (2000, 2005—2013) Table 4-6 Basic information on S&T activities in above-scale industrial enterprises, by registration type (2013) Table 4-7 Patent information in above-scale industrial enterprises (2013) Table 4-8 R&D projects with annual revenues above designated amount in above-scale industrial enterprises, by cooperation form (2013) Table 4-9 Introduction, assimilation and absorption of technologies, and purchase of domestic technologies in above-scale industrial enterprises (2000, 2004, 2009, and 2011—2013) Table 5-1 Overview of S&T activities in higher education institutions (2003—2013) Table 5-2 R&D expenditure of higher education institutions in certain countries (2013) Table 5-3 Proportion of R&D expenditure of higher education institutions to GDP in certain countries (2003—2013) Table 5-4 Papers, patents and technical market transactions in higher education institutions (2003—2013) Table 6-1 Personnel in R&D institutes (2005—2013) Table 6-2 Funds in R&D institutes (2005—2013) Table 6-3 Projects in R&D institutes (2005—2013) Table 6-4 S&T output in R&D institutions (2005—2013) Table 7-1 Basic information on high technology industry (2003—2013) Table 7-2 Major S&T indicators of high technology industry (2003—2013) Table 7-3 Import and export of high technology products (2003—2013) Table 7-4 Value of import and export of high technology products by field of technology (2011—2013) Table 7-5 Value of import and export of high technology products, by trade mode (2011—2013) Table 7-6 Value of import and export of high technology products, by type of enterprise (2011—2013) Table 7-7 Information on import and export of high technology products in China with certain countries/regions (2011—2013) Table 7-8 Major economic indicators of national high technology industrial development zones (2003—2013) Table 7-9 Overview of national high technology industrial development zones (2013) Table 7-10 Venture capital in China, by source of funds (2011—2013) Table 8-1 Regional distribution of S&T resources (2013) Table 8-2 Distribution of domestic S&T papers by region (2013) Table 8-3 Distribution of SCI papers by region (2013) Table 8-4 Distribution of patent applications by region (2013) Table 8-5 Distribution of patent grants by region (2013) Table 8-6 Output value of high technology industry and gross output value of above-scale industrial enterprises by region (2013) Table 8-7 Value of export of high technology products and its share in value of export of goods by region (2013) Table 8-8 Distribution of R&D personnel by performing sectors by region (2013) Table 8-9 Distribution of R&D expenditure by performing sectors by region (2013) Table 8-10 Gross output value of high technology industry according to industry by region (2013) Table 8-11 Value of exports of high technology products by technology field by region (2013) Table 8-12 Major S&T indicators by region (2013) Table 8-13 Major S&T indicators by administrative area (2013) Explanatory Notes to Major Statistic Indicators